Use of companion crops or mixed planting has been reported by several authors as a potential tool for insect pest management. Bats, rodents, and birds). Assuming an extraction rate of 172,983 m3/yr and a growth rate of 28,650 m3/yr, it is estimated Extensive trials of other species, mainly softwoods and Eucalypts, â¦ Influence of Phytolyma lata on seedling growth of Milicia excelsa V. K. Agyeman et al. Milicia regia is considered to be a priority for in situ conservation[299. Milicia excelsa (Welw) C.C. If the numbers of mates available are not high enough because dispersion methods are not effective over long distances, then the species will begin to suffer from inbreeding depression (inbreeding can lead to accumulation of recessive deleterious alleles in a population). Flowering takes place at a range of different times, but often occurs in January and February soon after the time when most of the leaves fall or shortly before the new leaves appear. â¦ The trunk is bare lower down with the first branch usually at least 20 metres (66 ft) above the ground. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.  A study has reported that most of the remaining Iroko trees in Benin were conserved on farms (Ouinsavi and Sokpon, 2008). They are very valuable to the community and are used to cure human diseases in traditional medicine, to make furniture in carpentry and joinery and to protect cultural values in local religions3. Infestation and seedling survival were used as indices of effectiveness by subjecting data collected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkeys test. The timber is used for construction of ships and barrels because of its high resistance to bad weather4. INTRODUCTION. 1. Its natural habitat is in wet savannah, rainforest, riverine and low-altitude evergreen forests. Weeding regimes (2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks) were allotted in a separate plot planted with pure stands of M. excelsa seedlings at the spacing of 2×2 m in three replicates. Khaya senegalensis, Khaya grandifolia Mansonia altissima, Albizia zygia, ... , height growth of Balanites aegyptiaca can be very slow at the seedlings stage, but at the saplings stage, the growth rate increases drastically. Other sources of information about Milicia excelsa: Our websites: Flora of Malawi: Milicia excelsa Flora of Mozambique: Milicia excelsa Flora of Zambia: Milicia excelsa External websites: African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Milicia excelsa African Plant Database: Milicia excelsa BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Milicia excelsa EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Milicia excelsa The existing tree crop which provides shade environment will serve as deterrence to P. lata from locating its host plant Milicia and consequently reduce infestation. The tree is nitrogen fixing and the leaves are used for mulching. RESULTS Comparisons of the results highlighted a mean diameter growth range of 4-5 mm/year for E n t a n d r o p h r a g m a s p . The effects of vitamins (half-strength Murashige and Skoog) and growth regulators (benzyladenine (BA) and NAA at 4.4+0.54 or 2.2+0.27 µsmallcapËM) on axillary bud elongation (ABE) and shoot growth â¦ The latex is used as an anti-tumour agent and to clear stomach and throat obstructions. In a study done on population distribution of Milicia excelsa in 2009, researchers found that most of the populations that were being studied were inbred. These results provide scientific evidence showing the efficacy of M. excelsa leaves in wound healing. A large, dry deciduous tree that can reach up to 50 m in height, native to tropical Africa, where it grows in lowland moist forests. When forests are felled, isolated trees are often left standing and the tree regenerates easily. Experimental site: Field trials were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Federal College of Forestry Ibadan, for two years (2010-2011). It is one of two species (the other being Milicia regia) yielding timber commonly known as African teak, iroko, intule, kambala, moreira, mvule, odum and tule. Data were collected on the plant height (cm), stem girth (mm), number of branches at monthly intervals and on number of galls and P. lata population at 2 weeks interval until two years. The plots were weeded manually with hoe and cutlass according to the weeding regime stipulated for it. It is found in Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, SÃ£o TomÃ© and PrÃncipe, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Number of galls on the test plants was assessed by direct counting of the galls at 2 weeks intervals while size of gall was measured with the aid of thread which was later stretched on meter rule to determine the actual length. Milicia excelsa (Welw) C.C. International audienceThe present study focuses on the cracking of tropical species of the Gabonese forest such as Milicia excelsa (Iroko) and Pterocarpus soyauxii (Padouk). C.C.  This seed also germinated better than uneaten seed and resisted predation longer.. is a major insect pests of Milicia excelsa (Iroko) which has hampered the establishment of Milicia plantation in many West African countries. Milicia excelsa is threatened by habitat loss. Specifically, soil characteristics and rainfall played a major role in the morphological variation of trunk growth of Milicia excelsa. Milicia excelsa is a tree species from the genus Milicia of the family Moraceae. In a study done on the mineralization of Milicia excelsa, it was observed that in certain conditions Milicia acts as a carbon sink. The introduction of Milicia excelsa into plantations as a native species can help decrease the exploitation rate in Ghana since it will reduce the high dependency on the natural forest for Milicia excelsa … An application rate of 27,000 Kg/ha was capable of enhancing the growth of the Milicia excelsa seedlings by 10.1cm over the control. bars) relative growth rate (RGR) of collar diameter and height for Milicia excelsa seedlings under three treatments in a nursery (screen house enclosure (SHS), fortnight spraying of systemic insecticide (TRT) and untreated seedlings (UNT). Epub 2012 Aug 21. , Because of these and many other uses of Milicia excelsa people have over harvested this species to the point of concern. This digital document is a journal article from Forest Ecology and Management, published by Elsevier in 2006. Mvule and Prunus africanum). Am J Bot. According to IUCN7, Milicia species is categorized as one of the endangered valuable timber species. Seedlings are fast growing and can be planted out in the field 4 months after germination. N. Bourland, O. J. Hardy, M. Heuertz, G. Mahy, and J.-L. Doucet, 2009, Spatial It prefers moist soil. In a study  it was seen that isolation was caused by one or more of the animals that are known for dispersal of Milicia excelsa (i.e. Four week old seedlings of Milicia excelsa (A. CHEV) C.C BERG and Nauclea diderrichii (DE WILD and TH. Similarly, Pinus silvestris and Quercus humilis were found favored by the presence of a dense under storey, particularly when shrubs were higher than seedlings30,31. R. Cobbinah and 2M. Berg Moraceae is an important economic tree species in West Africa. K. Agyeman, 1D. Stem girth (mm) was measured with the aid of veneers caliper. They are not grown in plantations but extractedfrom the natural forest at an unsustainable rate. Two species of Milicia are found in Africa; M. excelsa and M. regia.They are recognized together as Iroko. Common Name(s):Iroko Scientific Name:Milicia excelsa, M. regia(syn.Chlorophora excelsa, etc) Distribution:Tropical Africa Tree Size:100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameter Average Dried Weight:41 lbs/ft3 (660 kg/m3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC):.55, .66 Janka Hardness:1,260 lbf (5,610 â¦ Berg In Benin'. Bot. The highest plant height, stem girth and number of branches of Milicia was obtained on plot mixed with Cedrela odorata with mean value of 72.80 cm, 0.94 mm and 1.79, respectively (Table 1). Iverson et al.10 and Castagneyrol et al.11 reported that more diverse plant associations are less prone to insect damage including in the forests. Each block was allotted to one weeding regime and labeled accordingly. 1 Milicia excelsa (Moraceae) is an important timber tree in much of Africa and when grown in monocultural plantations has been subject to nearly complete destruction by gall‐forming psyllids in the genus Phytolyma. Distribution of Milicia excelsa 453 Tuomela et al. Milicia excelsa and Milicia regia are both traded as iroko and the share of Milicia excelsa in that commerce is unknown. , The tree can be used in the control of erosion, and for providing shade as a roadside tree in urban areas. Attempts to establish Milicia plantations in Africa have been hampered by gall-forming psyllids of the genus Phytolyma. Apart from strong climate oscillation during the â¦ To accurately estimate the genetic diversity and population structure for improved conservation planning of Milicia excelsa tree, 212 individuals from twelve population samples covering the species' range in Benin were surveyed at seven specific microsatellite DNA loci. It takes 150 years to grow four inches.  The people that conducted this study found that it would be a good method to use to specifically fight against the slow decline of the Iroko species. It is one of two species (the other being Milicia regia) yielding timber commonly known as African teak, iroko, intule, kambala, moreira, mvule, odum and tule. Six-months old M. excelsa seedlings of uniform heights (20 cm) collected from screen house and six months old seedlings of Azadirachta indica, Cedrela odorata and Pierreodendron africanum collected from Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) nursery were planted in binary mixture. Milicia excelsa, etc ; Bursaphelenchus; females; morphometry; new species; phylogeny; tail; vulva; wood; Cameroon; Italy; Show all 11 Subjects Abstract: A new species of Bursaphelenchus, extracted from unprocessed logs of Milicia excelsa from Cameroon and arriving in the port of Leghorn, Tuscany, Central Italy, is described. Milicia excelsa occurred sparsely in agroforestry systems in all regions, with density ranging from 1 to 4 stems haâ»¹; stand basal area varying from 33.10â»â´ to 129.10â»â´ m² haâ»¹, and negligible seedling regeneration. Bosu, J.R. Cobbinah, J.D. (1996) evaluated the growth of dipterocarp seedlings in artificial gaps in Indonesia and concluded that diameter increment in natural regenera-tion was increased in gaps in comparison with increments on trees in the understorey. Mixed planting of Milicia could probably reduce the P. lata infestation as reported by earlier researchers if transplanted in existing/old mono plantation of other tree crops not in a new plantation where the mixed trees are of the same age with the Milicia plant. Similarly, Wagner et al.14 also reported that mixed planting with other trees species and the use of different shade environments reduces the pest population, activity, abundance of galls and enhance growth of Milicia spp. Conclusion: It is concluded that planting M. excelsa in mixture with companion plants was promising for P. lata management and 12 weeks weeding regime reduced P. lata attack on Milicia excelsa. and neem were 12.94 and 22.01%, respectively (Fig. Examples are Milicia excelsa and Afromosia spp which are near ... has been observed that the rate of encroachment of these forest reserves is quite high and the damage being done â¦ To accurately estimate the genetic diversity and population structure for improved conservation planning of Milicia excelsa tree, 212 individuals from twelve population samples covering the species' range in Benin were surveyed at seven specific microsatellite DNA loci. Similarly, there were significant differences (p<0.01) among the treatments on the stem girth . A series of experiments was undertaken at the Forestry Research Institute of Ghana to investigate whether Milicia excelsa could be propagated from root cuttings, and to assess the influence of tree age (2 or 20 yr old), and cutting length (6 or 12 cm) and orientation (vertical or horizontal) on shoot and root production. Bosu, Paul P. et al. Milicia regia is considered to be a priority for in situ conservation[299. Evaluation of weeding regimes for the control of Phytolyma lata on Milicia excelsa:Six-months old healthy seedling of M. excelsa raised in the screen house were transplanted in a 10×30 m2 experimental plot at the spacing of 2×2 m at the rate of one seedling per stand and five seedlings per row in three replicates. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in plant height of transplanted seedlings of M. excelsa weeded at 2 weeks interval (48.42 cm) at 16 weeks after transplanting, followed by 4 weeks weeding interval (41.62 cm). It is resistant to termites and is used for construction, furniture, joinery, panelling, floors and boats. In a study done in 2010, it was found that environmental change from different regions in Benin caused much of the variation in Milicia excelsa. African teak is distributed across tropical central Africa. This study was conducted to assess the effect of planting M. excelsa with companion plants and weeding regimes for the control of P. lata. Phytalyma lata infestation on M. excelsa seedling was lower in 12 weeks weeding regime by 15% as compare to 2 weeks regime. This study revealed the potential of using companion plants as a control option for Phytolyma lata infestation on Milicia excelsa at the early stage of plantation establishment. of planting Milicia excelsa in various densities and species mixtures. establish quite accurate growth ranges that could prove useful for determining rotations between two logging opera-t i o n s . Exploitation is often unsustainable - in the 1980's, for example, the extraction rate of Milicia regia and Milicia excelsa in Ghana was estimated to be about 173,000 m³ per year, whereas the regeneration rate was estimated to be only about 29,000 m³ per year. Two weeks weeding regime had the highest stem girth (0.58 mm), followed by 6 weeks weeding regime (0.45 mm) and the least was the control (0.35 mm) (Table 3). The number of branches was assessed by direct counting of the number of branches observed on each M. excelsa plant. Benth. There are many variables and growing conditions that could affect the growth rate of a tree. Milicia excelsa is a tree species from the genus Milicia of the family Moraceae.  Some populations, especially plantations, are attacked by a gall mite. Fertility and birth are associated with it and its timber is used to make ceremonial drums and coffins. Jard. 2012 Sep;99(9):1453-63. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1200147. Ghana J. Forestry, Vol. Therefore, this study assessed the effect of mixed planting and weeding regime on the infestation of P. lata on Milicia excelsa in Southwest Nigeria. After some analysis the researchers found that the Milicia excelsa was inbreeding due to lack of proximity to other Milicia excelsa individuals. Four separate experiments tested respectively: (i) cuttings obtained from 1-, 2-, 10- and 20-yr â¦ In this study, we analyzed the survival and growth of two timber species, Milicia excelsa (Welw.) Similarly, Bosu et al.13 also reported that planting Milicia excelsa and M. regia with a mixture of Terminalia superb was found effective in reducing damage from P. lata attack. The plots were maintained by weeding manually at 6 weeks intervals.  This paper therefore investigated the early growth â¦ It is thought sacred in its native land, where the species is … , The tree is also used in herbal medicine. It can tolerate an annual rainfall of less than 70 centimetres (28 in) or six months of drought as long as there is a stream or a ground water source nearby.. 'Traditional Agroforestry Systems As Tools For Conservation Of Genetic Resources Of Milicia Excelsa Welw. A solution that has been proposed to help Milicia excelsa move further away from being threatened is agroforestry. The rate of disappearance of Milicia excelsa in the forests is alarming with West Africa being the hardest hit by the trend. regia, Moraceae, theirokos) are among the most useful indigenous rain forest treespecies in Africa. Known locally as iroko, the authors note that exploitation of the trees have led to a decrease in its abundance. ", Braissant, Olivier, Guillaume Cailleau, Michel Aragno, and Eric P. Verrecchia. Relative growth rate of Milicia was highest at 42% of full irradiance (Agyeman 1994). Iroko ( Milicia excelsa ) is a commercially important timber tree species formerly known by local people in Benin. Male trees start flowering after c. 10 years while females flower for the first time after 15 years.1 It … Agroforestry Systems 74.1 (2008): 17-26. Of all the factors listed, slow growth rate is the main factor militating against propagation of Milicia in the study area; Oyo (58%), Osun (42%), Ogun (36%) Ondo (46%) and Ekiti (22%), followed by lack of seeds for propagation Oyo (34%), Osun (26%), Ogun (16%), Ondo (8%) and Ekiti (30%) (Table 5). There is evidence that some of the variation that is described above amongst individuals is due to the variation in the environment. Many studies have attributed this variation in growth to the differences in climate of regions. Moreover, Sun et al.28,29 reported that low levels of competing vegetation are often associated with higher tip moth infestation rates. Root16 has earlier reported that diverse plantings provides more resources for natural enemies to build up including non-pest prey species, pollen and nectar thus build natural enemy communities and strengthen their impacts on pests. Seeds for sale starting at € 4.50. On arable crops, Mutisya et al.22 reported that agronet covers and companion cropping with a row of basil planted between adjacent tomato rows significantly (p<0.05) lowered B. tabaci infestation in tomatoes by 68.7%. This is in support with report by Paul and Weber24 that Astronium graveolens, Cedrela odorata and Terminalia amazonia planted in mixture with Zea mays and Cajanus cajan showed significantly superior growth performance over those in pure plantation. Poultry manure can therefore be applied to Milicia excelsa seedlings for enhancing the species primary growth in the nursery as well as for its plantation establishment. These translated to an increase of 14.83 and 10.18% in seedlings weeded at 2 weeks and 4 weeks weeding regime (interval) respectively above the control by 16 weeks after transplanting. Get latest info on Teak Plants, Sagwan Plant, suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, traders, wholesale suppliers with Teak Plants prices for buying. Reproduction et régénération naturelle de Milicia excelsa (Welw.) In this study, daily application of M. excelsa ointment enhanced wound contraction, epithelialization and fibroplasia. Seedlings are fast growing and can be planted out in the field 4 months after germination. Growth rate is medium; slower than Khaya spp. An application rate of 27000 Kg/ha was capable of enhancing the survivalof the Milicia excelsa seedlings by 87.50 percent over the control.6.1.3 Effect of poultry manure on the mean number of leaves of Miliciaexcelsa seedlingsPoultry manure also had a significant effect on the mean number of leaves and can thereforebe applied to Milicia excelsa â¦ Reply Trish B June 22, 2019 at 10:41 pm. This present study reveals that planting of M. excelsa with companion plants of the same age was not highly promising in reducing Phytolyma lata infestation on Milicia seedlings. The authors explore the literature on two native tree species of commercial value in central Africa:Milicia excelsa and Milicia regia. , In West Africa, African teak is considered to be a sacred tree. Exploitation is often unsustainable - in the 1980's, for example, the extraction rate of Milicia regia and Milicia excelsa in Ghana was estimated to be about 173,000 m³ per year, whereas the regeneration rate was estimated to be only about 29,000 m³ per year. Figure 2a and b: Mean (with S.E. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. This, over time, has resulted in the tree that we see today commonly known as Iroko. Ofori and Cobbinah15 also reported that planting Milicia with Gliricidia sepium minimizes the abundance and damage caused by P. lata. Scientific name: Milicia excelsa (Welw.) 2). Similarly, Plath et al.21 reported that higher herbivore damage to Tabebui rosea was found in mixed tree diversity than in mono plantation/stands. All loci were variable, with the mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 5.86 to 7.69. 1). Legaspi et al.23 also reported that intercropping mustard (Brassica juncea) as a companion crop for collards (Brassica oleraceae var. . African teak is distributed across tropical central Africa. In this study, mixed planting of Milicia with Cedrela odorata, A. indica (neem) and Pierreodendron africanum did not have significant effect in reducing P. lata infestation. These include Milicia excelsa, Entandrophragma spp. Distribution and habitat. Poultry manure can therefore be applied to Milicia excelsa seedlings for enhancing the species primary growth … Evaluation of mixed planting with other tree species for the control of P. lata on M. excelsa:The method for evaluating the effect of mixed planting of tree species with M. excelsa for control of P. lata infestation was adopted from Forrester et al.18. A negative growth rate at low irradiance (<3%) is a typical characteristics of pioneer species [ 46 , 47 ], and pioneer species tend to show maximum growth at higher irradiance than shade â¦ Average tree density varied from 1 to 7 stems haâ»¹ with diversity index ranging from 2.6 to 2.9. The timber is very strong, quite hard and long-lasting and the most important timber in international trade2. "Biologically Induced Mineralization in the Tree Milicia Excelsa (Moraceae): Its Causes and Consequences to the Environment. Abstract The effects of stock plant age, coppicing, cutting stem length and node position on the rooting ability of leafy stem cuttings of Milicia excelsa were investigated using a non-mist propagation system in Ghana. The exception to this is Musizi (Maesopsis eminii), which is a fast growing indigenous tree with considerable promise for timber  However, most of the people that were surveyed for the study did not use this system specifically to regenerate this species, therefore even though there is hope in helping this species the measures have not been taken to do so. For two dipterocarp species (Shoreafallaz and S. parvifolia), growth All the analysis were performed using ASSISTAT version 7.6 beta statistical assistance19. Iroko (Milicia excelsa and M. regia) is a valuable hardwood from the humid tropics of Africa, and is currently under threat of extinction because of over-exploitation and poor regeneration. Early underplanting with Chlorophora excelsa and Khaya grandifoliola has proved a failure. R. Wagner 1 Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research KNUST … Milicia excelsa is one of two tree species (the other being Milicia regia) that yield timber commonly known as African teak. This implies that companion plants encourages development of some insect pests infestation rather than reduction. In the south-western Central African Republic (annual rainfall 1500 mm; dry period 2 months) the average annual increment in diameter of Milicia excelsa trees is 0.57 cm; it decreases with age from 0.93 cm for trees with a diameter of less than 10 cm to 0.45 cm for trees with 110–120 cm diameter. The experiments were laid in a Randomized Block Design (RBD), growth parameters (height, stem diameter and number of branches) and P. lata infestation (number of galls and size of galls) on M. excelsa were observed at two weeks intervals. Phenological patterns in a natural population of a tropical timber tree species, Milicia excelsa (Moraceae): Evidence of isolation by time and its interaction with feeding strategies of dispersers. acephala) successfully reduced whitefly infestation. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) in four replicates. Statistical analysis: Data collected on growth parameter were analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkeys test while data on number of galls and population density of P. lata were transformed using square root transformation. The treatments were four weeding regimes: Two weeks weeding regime, 4 weeks weeding regime, 6 weeks weeding regime and control (3 months weeding interval). excelsa demonstrated a dose-dependent chemo-suppression in early and residual infections. Therefore, 12 weeks weeding interval can be recommended to reduce P. lata infestation on Milicia plantation at the early stage and further studies on planting of Milicia in mixture with old companion plants in plantation is required to confirm their potential in reducing P. lata infestation. A large, dry deciduous tree that can reach up to 50 m in height, native to tropical Africa, where it grows in lowland moist forests. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) on P. lata infestation between mono plantation and mixed plantation. The fruit are long, wrinkled and fleshy with the small seeds embedded in the pulp.. The iroko tree (Milicia excelsa) is known to the world as one of the most sought-after African timbers.It is thought sacred in its native land, where the species is associated with fertility and used in local medicine. The tree yields a strong, dense and durable dark brown hardwood timber. ... Growth/development: transplant seedlings into pots 3 weeks after germination. The growth of P. elata was faster than the growth of M. excelsa and a negative growth rate was observed for M. excelsa at low irradiance . https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=je.2017.81.86. A row consisted of five seedlings and was replicated five times giving a total 25 Milicia plants and 25 plants of other tree species in each sub plot in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) The control plot was mono plantation of Milicia excelsa at the same spacing of 3×3 m2. Plant height (cm) was measured from the soil level to the terminal bud using meter rule. Survival and growth of mixed plantations of Milicia excelsa and Terminalia superba 9 years after planting in Ghana [An article from: Forest Ecology and Management] [P.P. "Phenological Patterns in a Natural Population of a Tropical Timber Tree Species, Milicia Excelsa (Moraceae): Evidence of Isolation by Time and Its Interaction with Feeding Strategies of Dispersers. Family: Moraceae. Fresh seed germinates readily but it loses viability in storage. Two species of Milicia are found in Africa; M. excelsa and M. regia. Thus a new assumption for their control may arrive. M. excelsa extract at 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/ml inhibited the growth of S. aureus but not P. aeruginosa. Their activities interrupt plant physiological processes causing growth reduction and killing the seedlings in most cases9,8. The control experiment had the least number of galls, sizes of galls and population density of P. lata. 25, 2009 28 INFLUENCE OF PHYTOLYMA LATA (HOMOPTERA: PSYLLIDAE) ON SEEDLING GROWTH OF MILICIA EXCELSA 1V. genetic structure in Milicia excelsa (Moraceae) indicates extensive gene Many studies have attributed this variation in growth to the differences in climate of regions. This study will help divulge the impact of companion plants on P. lata infestation. The leaves of are used as mulch and the tree serves a good shade or shelter and sometimes used as an avenue tree5. irradiance. The leaves are 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 in) long, ovate or elliptical with a finely toothed edge, green and smooth above and slightly downy beneath. Attempt to establish Milicia plantation has been constrained by Phytolyma lata attack on the young plants which subsequently result to gall formation and dieback of the plant8. This study investigated the impact of Phytolyma on Milicia â¦ The IUCN has this species on the Red List under âNear Threatenedâ (BIZOUX, J.-P., 2009). The problem of slow growth of Milicia identified by the respondents in the study area as one of the factors militating against propagation of Milicia in this study, contradicted the earlier report by Birnie (1997) that Milicia excelsa is a fast growing species and coppices readily. Male trees have white catkins that extend 15 to 20 centimetres (5.9 to 7.9 in) and dangle from twigs at the axils of the leaves. It cannot grow in the shade. It often has several short buttress roots at the base. Product Details. The powdered bark is used for coughs, heart problems and lassitude. It grows rapidly, can be coppiced and is ready for cutting after about fifty years. Twelve (2 week) weeding intervals minimized P. lata attack on Milicia excelsa during early growth. Because of the highly attractive technological properties of its wood and its multipurpose uses, the species was subjected to intensive human pressure. Background and Objective: Iroko gall bug, Phytolyma lata Scott. 1. 2012 Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Axillary buds collected from shoots of 15-month-old seedlings of 3 half-sib families of Milicia excelsa, obtained from the Ashanti and eastern regions of Ghana, were cultured on woody plant medium. (1991) measured photosynthetic responses of weeds, pioneer and late successional trees and found that Milicia excelsa had similar photosynthetic rates (6 … Inbreeding could contribute to why this species is moving closer to being on the âThreatenedâ conservation list. Female trees have flower spikes measuring 5 to 6 centimetres (2.0 to 2.4 in) long by 2 cm (0.8 in) wide, green with prominent styles. Iroko ( Milicia excelsa ) is a commercially important timber tree species formerly known by local people in Benin. Many indigenous species are also very difï¬cult to grow in a plantation situation (e.g. The percentage infestation of M. excelsa mixed with C. odorata. Field infestation by P. lata in M. excelsa seedling was lower in 12 and 6 weeks weeding interval by 15.6 and 3.34%, respectively compared to 2 weeks weeding interval (Fig. Data were collected on Milicia height, stem girth and number of branches at monthly intervals and on number of galls and P. lata population density at 2 weeks interval until the end of the experiment following the same procedure applied on the previous experiment. establish quite accurate growth ranges that could prove useful for determining rotations between two logging opera-t i o n s . The results were recorded as 52.23% of M. excelsa seedling survival, followed by plot mixed with P. africanum (28.02%) while 24% sole plantation was recorded. The plant is not self-fertile. Nichols, E Nkrumah] on Amazon.com. C.C. However, there were not significant differences (p<0.05) among the different weeding intervals and the control. Iroko (Milicia excelsa and M. regia) is a valuable hardwood from the humid tropics of Africa, and is currently under threat of extinction because of over-exploitation and poor regeneration.Attempts to establish Milicia plantations in Africa have been hampered by gall-forming psyllids of the genus Phytolyma.This study investigated the impact of Phytolyma on Milicia planted in … excelsa Welw. Its range extends from Guinea-Bissau in the west to Mozambique in the east. , J.-P. Bizoux, K. Daiânou, It ranged â¦ Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. IJFR International Journal of Forestry Research 1687-9376 1687-9368 Hindawi Publishing Corporation 210179 10.1155/2009/210179 210179 Research Article Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of a Threatened African Tree Species, Milicia excelsa, Using Nuclear Microsatellites DNA Markers Ouinsavi Christine 1, 2 â¦ Find here details of companies selling Teak Plants, for your purchase requirements. The fruits take about a month to ripen and are eaten by squirrels, bats, and birds, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. The majorconstraint on cultivation and afforestation is thegall-forming insect â¦ This indicates that shading effects of different vegetation affect the population of P. lata, their activity, abundance of galls and growth of Milicia excelsa. Wagner et al.26 reported that agro forestry and mixed species plantation approach could be used to successfully manage Phytolyma lata, implying that the over story shade is beneficial to M. excelsa at some stages. A. Ofori, 1J. Berg in Benin, Agroforestry Systems, 17-26, "3.3 The symbolic and sacred significance of particular forest resources", International Federation of Building and Wood Workers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Milicia_excelsa&oldid=867425350, Plants used in traditional African medicine, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 November 2018, at 17:04. The wood is a highly valued commercial timber in Africa, for which demand is large. spp.) species growth performance as well as its survival rate in plantation establishments (Irvine, 1961). Trees planted 50 years ago in Uganda are now ready to harvest. Because of its importance to the environment there has been research done on how to conserve Iroko. which has led to an intensive exploitation of these trees in the natural forest. Belg. ", Christine Ouinsavi and Nestor Sokpon, 2008, Traditional Epub 2012 Aug 21. The total height, collar diameter and number of leaves were monitored fortnightly, while the Relative Growth Rates (RGRs) for height and diameter were estimated after 24 weeks. In contrast, Wagner et al.14 reported that Milicia planted in mixture with Gliricidium sepium reduced gall formation in the mixed plots compared to the pure Milicia stands (Mono plantation). population of Ghana is about 16.8 million (1995) with a growth rate average of 3.3% per annum. Wagner et al.14 also reported that deep over story shade during the early stages of growth can reduce Phytolyma gall formation, prevent dieback and associated loss of seedlings. Mixed planting of M. excelsa with different tree crops also showed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the growth of M. excelsa. Seeds for sale starting at â¬ 4.50. The Federal College of Forestry Site is located on the latitude 7.50 N and longitude 3.90 E. The climate condition of the area is tropical with an annual rainfall range of 180-700 mm per annum while the annual temperature is 34.40°C the daily humility is about 60%17. (sapelli, sipo, kosipo and tiama) and iroko (Milicia excelsa). Suitable pH: acid, neutral … Milicia excelsa is a large deciduous tree 30-50 m high, with a diameter of 2-10 m; bark thick, pale, ash grey to nearly black, then brown, usually fairly rough and flaking off in small scales, but seldom fissured; slash thick, fibrous, cream coloured with brown spots, exuding white latex; trunk This is important because the conversion of atmospheric carbon into land carbon decreases the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A mark was made on the plant at 5 cm from the ground level and all the measurements were taken at that marked portion until the end of the experiment. The study will help the researchers to expose the ecological relationship between P. lata and Milicia and its cryptic nature that contributes to their complexity in management. Older leaves turn yellow, and all of the leaves have a prominent rectangular mesh of veins visible on the underside. Therefore, it is extremely valuable timber, used especially for quality indoor and outdoor furniture. Iroko is a major timber in international trade; during the 1960s Côte dâIvoire exported about 55,000 m³ of iroko logs and 6000 m³ of iroko sawnwood per year, and Ghana 28,000 m³ of sawnwood. These red/far-red light were regulated by shading the various replicate â¦ An experimental plot 30×30 m2 was cleared manually with cutlass and divided into four sub plots. The plant is not self-fertile. Reaching enormous heights of 50 m (164 ft), iroko is a canopy tree of coastal forests and wet savannas throughout tropical Africa, though overexploitation has narrowed its range. Approximately 52.23% of M. excelsa survival was recorded while the least M. excelsa survival recorded in sole plantation (control) was 24% (Table 2). These specific conditions are characterized by presence of oxalate, bacteria for oxalate oxidation and a dry season, which are common conditions in which Milicia tends to grow. The high rate of exploitation coupled â¦ Effect of mixed planting with companion plants on P. lata infestation on M. excelsa:Field infestation by P. lata was significantly (p<0.01) lower on M. excelsa seedlings mixed with Cedrela odorata and neem compared to control. The bark is pale or dark grey, thick but little fissured, and if it gets damaged it oozes milky latex. Am J Bot. Moreover, this study showed that 12 weeks weeding regime reduced the incidence of P. lata infestation. show more data (8) show less data (8)comments (0) comments (0)| | | | and Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and thus render the investment unproï¬table. Also, Bosu et al.13 found that planting M. excelsa or M. regia in a mixture with Terminalia superba was effective in reducing damage from P. lata attack. Milicia species(M. excelsa andM. Materials and Methods: Six months old M. excelsa seedlings were planted in mixed stands with companion plants (Cedrela odorata, Azadirachta indica and Pierreodendron africanum) seedlings in a separate sub plots in five replicates. The critical energy release rate is computed with a modified Mixed Mode Crack Growth (MMCG) specimen. Milicia species also play important roles in erosion control and in enhancement of soil fertility. Milicia excelsa is widely spread across Africa, M. regia are found mainly in the wet forest zone while M. excelsa have a preference for the dry zones1. They are recognized together as Iroko. RESULTS Comparisons of the results highlighted a mean diameter growth range of 4-5 mm/year for E n t a n d r o p h r a g m a s p . The slowest-growing tree is said to be the cedar tree. Harvesting of Milicia species is mainly done from the natural forest, however, replacement has proven to be insufficient to match the rate of exploitation mainly due to their susceptibility to Phytolyma gall attack6. Underplanting and planting in clear-felled areas with Maesopsis eminii has proved more successful, but after 9 years the rate of growth appears to be slackening. Week old seedlings of Milicia are found in Africa effect of planting M. excelsa at. Could affect the growth of Milicia excelsa Welw is often protected when surrounding... Control of Phytolyma pests through the use of chemical pesticide has been by... Leaves of are used as an avenue tree5 share of Milicia are found in Africa ; M. and! Trees are often left standing and the control ( Fig grey, thick but fissured. Is considered to be a priority for in situ conservation [ 299 and fibroplasia number of was! Et al.10 and Castagneyrol et al.11 reported that more diverse plant associations are less to! 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And barrels because of the highly attractive technological properties of its importance to the terminal bud using meter rule high... Lata Scott of ships and barrels because of its wood and its multipurpose uses, species... Done on how to conserve iroko pulp. [ 7 ] down with the mean number branches... Species are also very difï¬cult to grow in a different way gets damaged it milky! With Gliricidia sepium minimizes the abundance and damage caused by P. lata between. We see today commonly known as iroko epithelialization and fibroplasia found ineffective due to its hidden nature were by... Iroko ) which has hampered the establishment of Milicia excelsa ( Moraceae ): Causes. To help Milicia excelsa ( A. CHEV ) C.C berg and Nauclea diderrichii ( DE and. With cutlass and divided into four sub plots readily but it loses viability in storage been research on... The variation in growth to the world as one of the endangered valuable species... Conserve iroko in that commerce is unknown long-lasting and the share of Milicia excelsa Aragno and. And Nauclea diderrichii ( DE WILD and TH dainou, K., E. Laurenty, G.,... Control may arrive to termites and is ready for cutting after about fifty.... Is threatened by habitat loss ) are among the different weeding intervals minimized P. lata infestation between mono and. Some populations, especially plantations, are attacked by a gall mite away from being threatened is agroforestry Mahy. ] Milicia excelsa ) is known to the environment the mean number of alleles per locus from! Investigated the early growth â¦ early underplanting with Chlorophora excelsa and Milicia regia considered. The forest do not produce sufficient natural regeneration to maintain the stock reduced by frequent felling, Plath al.21! Ready for cutting after about fifty years buttress roots at the base rapidly, can be out. The leaves and the control experiment had the highest percentage Milicia seedling survival 24 after. Note that exploitation of the endangered valuable timber species ) are among the treatments on the âThreatenedâ conservation.... Excelsa 1V percentage infestation of M. excelsa extract at 100, 50 25! During early growth â¦ early underplanting with Chlorophora excelsa and M. regia with sepium... ) is known to the differences in climate of regions indigenous species are also very resistant to with! Or shelter and sometimes used as an anti-tumour agent and to clear stomach and throat obstructions `` Induced! Other being Milicia regia ) that yield timber commonly known as African teak is known the... Some growth parameters under varying red/far-red light ratios crops or mixed planting has been research on... Bags to observe some growth parameters under varying red/far-red light ratios done on how to conserve iroko fixing. Grégory ; Doucet, Jean-Louis conditions that could affect the growth of the variation that is described amongst... And diseases âNear Threatenedâ ( BIZOUX, J.-P., 2009 ) showed that 12 weeks weeding regime stipulated it. It often has several short buttress roots at the stand level down in female trees and curve in... Timber in Africa a plantation situation ( e.g the highly attractive technological properties of its wood and timber. Other Milicia excelsa seedlings by 10.1cm over the control of companion plants encourages development of some insect of., J.-P., 2009 28 influence of Phytolyma lata Scott tip moth infestation rates Cameroun Daïnou, Kasso Mahy! Seedlings are fast growing and can be planted out in the field 4 after. Leaves are used for mulching BIZOUX, J.-P., 2009 ) ) among the treatments on the Red under. Of the endangered valuable timber, used especially for quality indoor and outdoor furniture et... Is a journal article from forest Ecology and Management, published by Elsevier in 2006 Tabebui rosea was found Africa! Residual infections, Christine Ouinsavi and Nestor Sokpon, 2008, Traditional agroforestry as! ( HOMOPTERA: PSYLLIDAE ) on seedling growth of S. aureus but not P. aeruginosa wound healing many have. Hampered by gall-forming psyllids of the highly attractive technological properties of its importance to the variation in growth the! Increase habitat for plants and animals Milicia species also play important roles erosion... Grown in plantations but extractedfrom the natural forest at an unsustainable rate closer being. Two tree species ( the other being Milicia regia are both traded as iroko and the and. An anti-tumour agent and to clear stomach and throat obstructions and Nestor Sokpon, 2008, Traditional Systems.
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