Lean Library can solve it. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. The cooperative in Jirmale has been running smoothly since its establishment 5 years ago. Large cardamom prices had plunged to Rs 1,000 per kg in 2011. The role of each is detailed in Table 7. From the supply side, officials reported that cardamom farms require intensive care in plantation and management. Large cardamom production has declined in recent decades due to viruses, including chirke (mosaic streak) and furkey (bushy dwarf), and fungi (SNV, 2008). These districts are the major producers of cardamom as well. There are 46 village development committees (VDCs) and three municipalities in Ilam. However, the return was not even half of what they earned from cardamom. One member of each household producing cardamom, either male or female, can join this cooperative, which acts as a savings institution and provides loans to members. This photo gallery emerged during the fieldwork in East Nepal conducted for my PhD thesis “Commercialisation and the ‘good life'” between September and December 2018. Presently, Nepal is the largest producer of large cardamom with 68% share in the market, followed by India (22%) and Bhutan (9%). Third, information about crop diseases and measures to combat them can be provided through the use of technology, such as mobile phones, which most farmers in Ilam possess. Respondents from poorer households reported that, if the cardamom revival attempt failed, they would go hungry. Cardamom farming is a source of income for many farmers in Taplejung, Panchthar, Ilam, Sankhuwasabha and Terhathum among other districts in the eastern hilly regions of the country. Innovation transforms the ways institutions function by improving policies, regulations, and their implementation (Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture [IICA], 2014). Further assessment of the political economy of institutions, from micro to macro level, in addressing vulnerability and building coping strategies can help frame sound policies for commercial farming in Nepal. A total of 31 in-depth interviews were conducted, using a semistructured checklist, based on availability of cardamom farmers in each VDC. Moreover, adaptation of coping strategies during crop failure is sometimes hindered due to limited availability of land (Tucker, Eakin, & Castellanos, 2009). (, Kumari, B. (, Cooper, P. J. M., Dimes, J., Rao, K. P. C., Shapiro, B. Government schools have poor infrastructure, insufficient facilities, and weak teaching quality compared with private schools (Pherali, Smith, & Vaux, 2011). Large cardamom was introduced into Ilam (Nepal) in 1865 AD, nearly 143 years ago by Nepalese laborers from Sikkim. A growing number of farmers has taken up cardamom farming in recent years due to better returns from the cash […] The price of cardamom in Nepal has doubled. Common issues that emerged from the in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews included lack of markets for alternative crops grown as a substitute for cardamom. A VDC is the lower administrative unit and a decentralized body run by the VDC Secretary, appointed and governed by the central government. In recent years, production of these cash crops has increased with high market prices, benefiting farmers and motivating them to produce more. Respondents mentioned attempts to revive the crop using new species of cardamom. Of 75 districts in Nepal, 41 produce large cardamom (Table 1). Singha Durbar, Kathmandu, Nepal: Statistic Agriculture Book. Traditionally, large cardamom has grown wild in these hills, in soil considered unfit for cultivating food crops. Lack of production is occurring not only in cardamom but also in other crops, such as lime (Munakarmi et al., 2014) and maize (Govind et al., 2015), in eastern Nepal. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb. Studies show cash crop production contributes to job opportunities and improves livelihoods (Maharjan, 2014; Thongyou, 2014; Wamalwa, 2011). Villagers have always known that they can get this spice free, and can sell what they don’t need. Elderly people reported they were distressed to see their centuries-old farm disappear. In Nepal, cardamom, coffee, tea, pulses, and some fruits are high-value crops in high demand in national and international markets (Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, 2012).In recent years, production of these cash crops has increased with high market prices, … It has been the highest producer of cardamom in Nepal for centuries. Also, most of the maize and rice harvests were consumed at home. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses. One of the goals of the strategy is to develop special programs and produce virus-free cardamom plants. Other researchers have pointed out the need for sound policies and institutions to protect crops during crisis (Sharma, Sharma, & Sharma, 2009), and have argued (Singh & Pothula, 2013) that, despite policies on cardamom improvement, farmers still face problems because of their rural orientation and limited knowledge about policies due to weak institutional capacity. It also refers to people working together to reframe methods and approaches and research questions (Clark, Hall, Sulaiman, & Naik, 2003; Prasad, 2007). The mismatch between demand and supply for agricultural support suggests the need for reconsideration of the types of support offered and the channels through which it is offered. In the Eastern part of Nepal, high-value crops such as cardamom, ginger, broom, tea, milk, fresh vegetables, chilies, kiwi, and tea are produced by farmers. Respondents were not willing to give up cardamom farming due to its high return. Some respondents who had been ill reported selling assets, such as gold and livestock, to pay for treatment. Of the 17 female participants in in-depth interviews, 13 stated that cardamom produced more than 70% of their income. These districts are highlighted in Figure 1. Similar findings have been reflected in a global context (Thongyou, 2014; Wamalwa, 2011). Institutional innovation in the agriculture sector may also relate to those conducting research, providing extension services and education, promoting markets, and framing policies (Babu, Glendenning, Asenso-Okyere, & Govindarajan, 2012). q`qc���F�;S��P�*P,��!P�W�&�&���[���X2#;�l ɐ�� ���& B� � !���� `,U3f7if �[>�_�i��^ � L/��19pO�z°�ﬃdC���L��x�fj���� � m� Decline in Cardamom Production in the Study Sites. Thus, farmers generated their own coping strategy and relied on each other, yet failed. Households with at least one educated member with a job in the public or private sector reported a lower impact of crop loss on their livelihoods. However, the plan fails to map the interactions between farmers and officials at the national and local levels, and this situation seeks a platform for institutional innovation. “Innovation,” in this article, refers to a systematic process of interaction between institutions, policies, and stakeholders to produce new processes of social and economic transformation (Edquist, 1997; Lundvall, 1992). Since then, prices have been rising gradually, reaching Rs 2,250 per kg in August. To promote innovation, the National Agricultural Research and Service Center was established under the authority of the Ministry of Agriculture; the name was changed to Nepal Agricultural Research Council in 1991 (Chhetri et al., 2011). These crops, however, were sold in small amounts and generated lower returns than cardamom. This would help improve institutional management, operation, effectiveness, and overall function (Babu, 2013). There is no comparison of other crops with cardamom . Pathak (2014) indicates that institutional innovation should act as a channel beneficial to the poor, where the poor can also be a part of the interaction. . Table 3. 2,528 million or about US$23.6 million, on about 14,847 ha of land in 40 districts (MoAD, 2015). However, the revival process is ongoing, and many farmers reported that cardamom production for export was the only means to improve their livelihoods. The Political Economy of Cardamom Farming in Eastern Nepal: Crop Disease, Coping Strategies, and Institutional Innovation, http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, 2012, Stanley, Chandrasekaran, Preetha, Kuttalam, & Sheeba, 2014, Ministry of Agriculture and Development [MoAD], 2014b, “Farmers Worried Due to Failing Cardamom Production,” 2014, Partap, Sharma, Gurung, Chhetri, & Sharma, 2014, Stoep, Pokharel, Rajbhandari, & Shrestha, 2010, National Research Programme for Plantation Development, 2012, SNV Netherlands Development Organization [SNV], 2008, Bhattarai, Deka, Chhetri, Harsha, & Gupta, 2013, Coulibaly, Gbetibouo, Kundhlande, Sileshi, & Beedy, 2015, Famine Early Warning Systems Network [FEWS NET], 2013, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture [IICA], 2014, Chhetri, Chaudhary, Tiwari, & Yadav, 2011, Wilcock, Elliott, Hudson, Parkyn, & Quinn, 2008, Achterbosch, van Berkum, & Meijerink, 2014, Kumari, Thiruchelvam, Dissanayake, & Lasantha, 2010, Upreti, K. C., Mallett, & Babajanian, 2012, Schut, van Paassen, Leeuwis, & Klerkx, 2014, Babu, Glendenning, Asenso-Okyere, & Govindarajan, 2012, http://www.ipsnews.net/topics/malabo-declaration-on-accelerated-agricultural-growth-and-transformation-for-shared-prosperity-and-improved-livelihoods/, http://federation.ens.fr/ydepot/actua/JOURNE/2008_10_03/COELMARK.pdf, http://www.ifpri.org/publication/strategies-and-priorities-african-agriculture, http://www.sljol.info/index.php/TAR/article/view/3307/2681, http://sangamtimes.blogspot.com/2012/05/output-of-meat-milk-cash-crops.html. Even though its farms have extended into Western Nepal, output from eastern region, which contributes around 90 percent in total production, largely dominates the market. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Subsistence and commercial crops grown in the study areas, including cardamom, are summarized in Table 2. Despite declines in production, the good return on investment has encouraged farmers to continue growing cardamom. This shows that farmers use returns, after fulfilling their food and health needs, to invest in business. Table 2. The situation we encountered during fieldwork coincides with previous findings that institutions should help address climate change issues through transfer of knowledge about farming techniques and disease control (Akanda & Howlader, 2015; Codjoe et al., 2013; Coulibaly et al., 2015; Okonya et al., 2013; Oluwatusin, 2014; Oyekale & Oladele, 2012; Wilk et al., 2012). In the VDCs affected by disease, the process of decline took 10 to 15 years. It can give farmers time to prepare alternative measures at a reasonable pace without being distressed. This study explored issues of disease infestation in large cardamom, farmers’ coping strategies, and institutional support for cardamom farmers. Study participants also reported, particularly in the focus group discussions, that reviving cardamom farming was difficult for poorer households because cardamom takes time to mature before bearing fruit, like some other cash crops (Achterbosch, van Berkum, & Meijerink, 2014). Large cardamom is an important cash crop for marginal farmers in the Kangchenjunga Landscape, which is shared by Bhutan, India, and Nepal. Figure 2. (, Ministry of Agricultural and Development . (, Upreti, B. R., K. C., S., Mallett, R., Babajanian, B. After maturing, these cash crops bear fruit for 10 to 15 years. ���Z��@��L����.��C9/��o�Ϳ�7������o�Ϳ���_�����.ojzd?KS�P$�@�ˋ�����?A:�=Qڗi��"~�|��C�S�� ���N����k�^���Q'��C͙��G��@�^R�JG����. Between 2007 and 2013, cardamom production declined by about 1,000 MT, and the area of production declined by about 2,000 ha (MoAD, 2013). The Challenges of Empowering Women: The Experience of Pulse Innovation Project in Southern Ethiopia, Post-disaster agricultural transitions in Nepal, Achterbosch, T. J., van Berkum, S., Meijerink, G. W. (, Babu, S. C., Glendenning, C. J., Asenso-Okyere, K., Govindarajan, S. K. (, Barrett, C. B., Bachke, M. E., Bellemare, M. F., Michelson, H. C., Narayanan, S., Walker, T. F. (, Bhattarai, N. K., Deka, T. N., Chhetri, P., Harsha, K. N., Gupta, U. The focus group discussions revealed that households with larger landholdings were equally distressed about losing their cardamom farms; however, they were less vulnerable. Institutional innovation in the agriculture sector in Nepal emerged in 1924 with the establishment of the Department of Agriculture to conduct research and develop agricultural technologies (Chhetri, Chaudhary, Tiwari, & Yadav, 2011). 1. arrow_back. Cardamom farming, which was limited to eastern Nepal till a few years ago, is becoming popular across the country. They bought fungicides and plant nutrients, which benefited the crops but were costly. 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In this study, it was used to explore the gap between farmers’ efforts to cope with cardamom disease and the institutional support for those efforts. The Council aims to develop agricultural technology, prioritize indigenous farming practices, and support changes in farming to adapt to climatic conditions. … This reflects the central government’s concern about crop disease and related issues. A majority of farmers reported cardamom growing techniques being passed down through their families, describing it as “learning by seeing and doing.” Some acquired training from local institutions. Large cardamom farming in changing climatic and socioeconomic conditions in the Sikkim Himalayas (ICIMOD Working paper). Despite these high revenues, cardamom production in Nepal is declining due to disease (Khadka, 2011; National Research Programme for Plantation Development, 2012; SNV Netherlands Development Organization [SNV], 2008; Stoep et al., 2010). Participants reported that, before the onset of cardamom disease, the crop had been their major source of income. Despite acquiring substantial revenue from cardamom, the national government has failed to appoint adequate crop experts at the local level. About 90% of large cardamom produced in Nepal is exported to India through the port of Birtamode in Jhapa district. Market Intelligence Sourcing & Purchasing Sales & Offering. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. Disease and their management 22 10 . Each focus group had six people. We invited stakeholders from various disciplines, including officials from the Agriculture Development Office, Cardamom Development Center, Women’s Empowerment Association, and Ilam Chamber of Commerce, as well as other cardamom researchers, journalists, traders, and farmers. is the world's one of the most ancient spices, popularly known as Alainchi in Nepali and renounced as Black Gold, Queen of Spices.It belongs to Zingiberaceae family and is a perennial soft-stemmed low-volume, high-value crop .Originating in the Eastern Himalayan region of Nepal and Sikkim (India), the crop is grown only in … This study investigated farmers’ strategies for coping with disease in large cardamom in eastern Nepal, which has undergone a tremendous decline in production. Mr. Reddy-May 23, 2017 Findings suggest a serious need for institutional innovation to manage cardamom farms. This coincides with reports on recent studies of cardamom farming in Sikkim, which emphasize climate change as the major cause of production decline (see Bhattarai et al., 2013; Partap et al., 2014). To promote cardamom revival, policies have to be framed that focus strictly on preventing or combating disease through research. These institutions should formulate proper innovation methods and reach out to farmers of diverse groups. Chamaita did not have a cooperative. Large Cardamom Production by Region. Other markets are Singapore, United Kingdom, and United Arab Emirates (Maharjan, 2014; Nepal Trade Integration Strategy, 2010). Large cardamom Conducting a political economy analysis on data from Ilam district, this study investigated the impact of crop disease on farmers’ livelihoods, as well as both individual and institutional efforts to combat the disease. Her guidance during this period was great motivation to push through this work. Political economy analysis framework. Decline in cardamom production led these women to worry about livelihoods and their children’s education. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. The current support mechanisms reflect the institutions’ lack of ability to reach the farmers and call into question the institutional capacities in the Nepalese agriculture sector. The interviews were recorded, with the consent of the respondents and in accordance with ethical research norms. With cardamom prices increasing steadily over the past one decade, … Jirmale covers an area of 37.78 km2 and borders Darjeeling, India, which lies to the east; elevation ranges from 275 to 1,625 m. There are 1,074 households in Jirmale with 5,191 people (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2011). Crops but were costly about us $ 23.6 million, on about 14,847 ha land. The SAGE Journals Sharing page of paying the lenders a small amount every month no. 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